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            L to J Key Concepts             

    1. Curriculum has two major divisions: know (information, concepts, principles) and can do (performances).
    2. The histogram’s shape should progress from an “L” to a bell and finally to a “J”. The “L” displays high standards; the “J” high success rates.
    3. The three basic graphs are the run chart, scatter diagram and histogram.
    4. Effective use of data requires the study of patterns and trends. Ineffective use of data uses only one or two data points.
    5.  The aim of good management is efficiency and meeting needs of individuals; the aim of good leadership is meeting the common needs of all. Both are essential.
    6. Ask why at least five times to find root causes.
    7. Dr. Deming estimated that problems are the fault of the system 96% of the time and individuals 4% of the time.
    8. There is no shortage of qualified people, unless we choose to create one.
    9. Leaders help people remove system barriers.
    10. Dr. Deming’s learning cycle has four stages: plan, do study, act (PDSA). The most important aspect of plan is collecting base-line data.
    11. Experience is not the best teacher; continually testing theories is a better teacher. Learning comes from, in rank order, testing theories, being mentored and experience.
    12. It takes only one example contrary to one’s theory to require that the theory be revisited.
    13. The #1 requirement of leaders is to create more leaders.
    14. The primary aim of a school system is to increase success and decrease failure.
    15. A clear aim unifies people and practices.
    16. It is not the responsibility of educators to motivate students, but to determine what is causing them to lose their motivation and stop such practices.
    17. According Piaget, children are most like adults in their feelings and least like adults in their thinking.
    18. A major responsibility of leaders is to drive fear out of the organization.
    19. To improve system results, work on system processes.
    20. The learning sequence is collect data, graph the data, gain insight, test hypotheses and learn.
    21. Process (formative) measurement provides feedback during the course and results (summative) measurements are the final data at the year’s end or data from standardized assessments.
    22. Feedback is from customers; evaluation is from bosses.
    23. The square root is the minimum sample size for accurate data from random, weekly LtoJ quizzes.
    24. Seven perfect scores in a row are needed to “test out”.”
    25. There are two kinds of variation: special and common. The control chart statistically separates them.
    26. The scatter overlay combines the student run chart with the scatter diagram. It is very useful in IEP meetings and some parent conferences.
    27. From LtoJ is used to measure (1) background knowledge (2) performance, (3) student enthusiasm, (4) classroom management (i.e. attendance behavior) and (5) special requirements with ELL, gifted or special education. Enthusiasm is the least measured.
    28. From LtoJ is a review/preview process with a constant review of what has been taught and a constant preview of what is yet to be taught.
    29. Continuous improvement is not about meeting arbitrary goals, but always performing at higher and higher levels of performance (all-time-bests).
    30. Data can be disaggregated to see how sub-sets of students are performing and aggregated (added) to study groups of students by classroom, grade level, department, or school.

    Dr. Deming, in The New Economics, placed his leadership principles into four categories: variation, system, epistemology (the study of how people come to know) and psychology. The 30 LtoJ key concepts are derived from what Dr. Deming labeled profound knowledge.

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